Sunday, April 10, 2022

हाई टेम्परेचर एंड हाई प्रेशर सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन

 

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High-temperature high-pressure soft flow dyeing machine


हाई टेम्परेचर एंड हाई प्रेशर सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन:

जैसा कि हम जानते हैं कि कपड़ा सामग्री की रंगाई तीन विधियों का उपयोग करके की जाती है। कपड़ा सामग्री को निरंतर, अर्ध-निरंतर और बैच रंगाई विधियों द्वारा रंगा जाता है। कपड़ा सामग्री को रंगने के लिए बैच प्रक्रिया सबसे आम तरीका है। बैच रंगाई मशीन के तीन सामान्य प्रकार हैं:

1- जिसमें  कपड़ा परिचालित होता है

2- जिसमें डाई बाथ परिचालित किया जाता है

3- जिसमें  डाई बाथ और सामग्री दोनों का परिचालित किया जाता है।

सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन रंगाई के तरीकों में से एक का सबसे अच्छा उदाहरण है जिसमें कपड़े की रंगाई प्रक्रिया के दौरान डाई बाथ और कपड़े दोनों को परिचालित किया जाता है।

सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन बुने कपड़े और नीटेड फैब्रिक को  रंगने के लिए उपयुक्त होती है। यह मशीन हल्के बने हुए   कपड़ों और टेरी टॉवल जैसे भारी कपड़ों की रंगाई के लिए बहुत उपयोगी है।

सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंग मशीन के लाभ:

1- सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन लिकर के उपयोग को कम करती है।

2 - सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन कपड़े की रंगाई के दौरान  कपड़े को  विरूपण, पिलिंग और क्रीज़िंग से बचाती है।

3 - बेहतर रिंस एफिशिएंसी  प्राप्त होती है।

4 - तनाव रहित फैब्रिक मूवमेंट होने के कारण कपड़े को धोने के बाद वार्प वाइज  फैब्रिक श्रीनकेज  को सुधार करने में मदद करता है।

5 - कम मटेरियल लिकर रेश्यो के कारन कम डाई रसायन  लागत आती हैI

6 - कम सामग्री लिकर अनुपात के कारण अपशिष्ट उपचार लागत कम हो जाती है।

7 - कम सामग्री लिकर  अनुपात के कारण भाप की लागत भी कम हो जाती है।

8 - हल्के और ढीले निर्माण को बिना किसी फिसलन के सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंग मशीन में रंगा जाता है।

9 - सिंथेटिक कपड़े जिसमें उबलते तापमान से ऊपर रंग फिक्स  होता है, उच्च तापमान उच्च दबाव सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन में रंगा जा सकता है।

10 - फैब्रिक पिलिंग गुणों में भी सुधार होता है।

11 - सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन में सेल्वेज और कपड़े की  बॉडी  के बीच शादी का अंतर दिखाई नहीं देता है।

सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन के प्रकार:

1. मल्टी नोजल सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंग मशीन।

2. उच्च तापमान उच्च दबाव  सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन।

3. सरल सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंगमशीन।

सॉफ्ट फ्लो मशीन में शामिल विभिन्न प्रक्रियाएं:

1. स्कोरिंग एंड ब्लीचिंग I

2. डाइंग 

3. वाशिंग एंड न्यूट्रलाइज़िंग 

4. स्ट्रिपिंग ऑफ़ डाइड गुड्स 

सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंग मशीन की संरचना और कार्य सिद्धांत:

चूंकि कपड़े को सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंग मशीन  में रस्सी के रूप में परिचालित किया जाता है इसलिए सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंग मशीन से रंगाई को एक  रूप डाइंग प्रोसेस  के रूप में भी जाना जाता है।










फैब्रिक लोडिंग और अनलोडिंग सिस्टम:

कपड़े को कपड़े की एक अंतहीन रस्सी के रूप में परिचालित किया जाता है। रंगे जाने वाले उपलब्ध कपड़े की निरंतर लंबाई को प्राप्त करने के लिए कपड़े के टुकड़ों को एक साथ सिला जाता है। अच्छी तन्यता वाली एक बुने हुए सूती टेप को मशीन चालू करने के दौरान कपड़े के रास्ते से गुजारा जाता है। अब, कपड़े के ऊपरी सिरे को कॉटन टेप के ऊपरी सिरे से बांध दिया जाता है। टेक-अप रोलर या ड्राइव व्हील कपड़े को मशीन के अंदर ले जाता है। सूती टेप के निचले सिरे को लोडिंग के दौरान थोड़ा बाहर निकालकर रखा जाता है जब तक कि कपड़े का ऊपरी सिरा मशीन से बाहर न आ जाए। सूती टेप को अब कपड़े से हटा दिया जाता है। कपड़े की लोडिंग कपड़े के निचले सिरे तक जारी रहती है। अब, एक अंतहीन कपड़ा बनाने के लिए ऊपरी और निचले सिरे को एक साथ सिला जाता है। फैब्रिक लोडिंग और अनलोडिंग डोर अब बंद कर दिया जाता है।

जब कपड़े की रंगाई पूरी हो जाती है, तो कपड़े को मशीन से एक अनलोडिंग रील के माध्यम से बाहर निकाला जाता है। कपड़े को कपड़े की ट्रॉली में इकट्ठा किया जाता है। कपड़े उतारने के अंत में, सूती टेप को फिर से कपड़े के मार्ग में डाला जाता है।

डाई आटोक्लेव या मुख्य डाई वेसल :

डाई आटोक्लेव उच्च गुणवत्ता वाले संक्षारण प्रतिरोधी स्टेनलेस स्टील से बना होता  है। मूल रूप से, यह एक उच्च दबाव वाला बंद वेसेल होता  है। इस आटोक्लेव में डाई बाथ भरा जाता है। कपड़े को इस आटोक्लेव के अंदर लोड किया जाता है। आटोक्लेव के सामने एक लीक-प्रूफ फैब्रिक लोडिंग और अनलोडिंग डोर लगा होता है।

नोजल या ओवरफ्लो ट्यूब और कपड़े परिवहन प्रणाली:

कपड़े की रस्सी और डाई लिकर दोनों सॉफ्ट फ्लो डाइंग मशीन  में धीरे-धीरे चलती हैं। कपड़े का परिवहन एक हल्की यांत्रिक क्रिया प्रदान करता है। डाई लिकर उच्च दबाव पर नोजल को फीड की जाती है। जब कपड़ा नोजल से होकर गुजरता है, तो सर्कुलेटिंग फैब्रिक डाई लिकर के संपर्क में आ जाता है। लिकर  के दबाव के कारण डाई लिकर कपड़े में ठीक से प्रवेश कर जाती है। मुख्य रंगाई वेसल एक ट्यूबलर वेसल होता  है। नोज़ल और संकरी नली (डिलीवरी ट्यूब) से निकलने वाला कपड़ा डाई के मुख्य पात्र में गिर जाता है। गिरने वाला कपड़ा मैन डाई के बर्तन में लगातार पट जाता है।

लिकर  परिसंचरण पंप और फिल्टर:

डाई लिकर को नोजल में डालने के लिए एक उच्च दबाव वाले लिकर  परिसंचरण पंप का उपयोग किया जाता है। यह मुख्य डाई के बर्तन से लिकर लेता है और इसे नोजल में भेजता  है। एक लिकर पंप के साथ एक फिल्टर भी जुड़ा होता है जो डाई लिकरको लगातार साफ करता है।

हीट एक्सचेंजर:

लिकर परिसंचरण पंप और मशीन के नोजल के बीच एक हीट एक्सचेंजर लगाया जाता है। हीट एक्सचेंजर का मुख्य कार्य आवश्यकता पड़ने पर तापमान को नीचे लाना है। जब रंगाई पूरी हो जाती है, तो इस हीट एक्सचेंजर की मदद से डाई बाथ को ठंडा किया जाता है।

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PRE - TREATMENT PROCESS OF NATURAL CELLULOSIC FABRICS OR FABRIC PREPARATION FOR DYEING
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COTTON FIBRE, CHEMICAL FORMULA OF COTTON FIBRE, CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE COTTON FIBRE


Monday, February 28, 2022

Soft flow dyeing machine structure and working principle, Advantages of soft flow dyeing machine

High-temperature high-pressure soft flow dyeing machine:

As we know that the dyeing of the textile material is carried out by using three methods. The textile material is dyed by continuous, semi-continuous and batch dyeing methods. The batch process is the most common method used to dye textile materials. There are three general types of batch dyeing machines:

1- In which fabric is circulated

2- In which dye bath is circulated

3- In which both the bath and material are circulated.

 

The soft flow dyeing machine is the best example of one of the dyeing methods in which the dye bath and fabric both are circulated during the fabric dyeing process.

A soft flow dyeing machine is suitable for dyeing a wide range of knitted and woven constructions of fabric in rope form. This machine is very useful for the dyeing of lightweight woven fabrics and pile fabrics like terry towels. 

Advantages of soft flow dyeing machine:

1- The soft flow dyeing machine minimises liquor usage.

2 - The soft flow dyeing machine avoids fabric distortion, pilling and creasing. 

3 - Improved rinse efficiency results.

4 - Tensionless fabric movement helps to improve warp-wise fabric shrinkage after washing.

5 - Low dye chemical cost results in soft flow dyeing due to low material liquor ratio.

6 - The effluent treatment cost is reduced due to the low material liquor ratio.

7 - The steam cost also decreases due to the low material liquor ratio.

8 - The lightweight and loose construction are dyed in the soft flow dyeing machine without any slippage.

9 - The synthetic fabric in which the colour fixation takes place above boiling temperature can be dyed in the high-temperature high-pressure soft flow dyeing machine.  

10 - The fabric pilling properties are also improved.

11 - The shade difference between selvedge and the body of the fabric does not appear in the soft flow dyeing machine.

Types of Soft Flow Dyeing Machine:

1. Multi nozzle soft flow dyeing machine.

2. High-temperature high-pressure soft flow dyeing machine.

3. Simple soft flow dyeing machine.

Various processes involved in soft flow machine:

1. Scouring and bleaching

2. Dyeing

3. Washing and Neutralizing

4. Stripping of dyed goods

Structure and working principle of soft flow machine:






Since the fabric is circulated in the soft flow machine in the rope form therefore the soft flow dyeing is also known as the rope dyeing process.

Fabric loading  and unloading system:

The fabric is circulated in the form of an endless rope of the fabric. The pieces of the fabric are stitched together to find the continuous length of the available fabric to be dyed. A woven cotton tape having good tensile strength is passed through the fabric passage during machine commissioning. Now, the upper end of the fabric is tied with the upper end of the cotton tape. The take-up roller or drive wheel carries the fabric inside the machine. The lower end of the cotton tape is pulled out slightly during loading till the upper end of the fabric comes out of the machine. The cotton tape is removed from the fabric now. The fabric loading gets continue till the lower end of the fabric. Now, the upper and lower ends are stitched together to form an endless fabric. The fabric loading and unloading door is closed now.

When the fabric dyeing gets completed, the fabric is taken out of the machine through an unloading reel. The fabric is collected in the cloth trolley. At the end of fabric unloading, the cotton tape is inserted again in the fabric passage.

Dye autoclave or main dye vessel: 

The dye autoclave is made of high-quality corrosion-resistant stainless steel. Basically, it is a high pressure closed vessel. The dye bath is filled in this autoclave. the fabric is loaded inside this autoclave. a leak-proof fabric loading and unloading door is mounted in front of the autoclave. 

Nozzle or overflow tube and fabric transport system:

The rope of the fabric and dye liquor both move slowly in the soft flow fabric dyeing machine. The transportation of the fabric imparts a mild mechanical action. The dye liquor feeds to the nozzle at high pressure. When the fabric passes through the nozzle, the circulating fabric comes in contact with dye liquor. The dye liquor penetrates into the fabric properly due to pressurised liquor circulation.  The main dyeing vessel is a tubular vessel. The fabric coming out of the nozzle and narrow tube( delivery tube) falls into the main dye vessel. The falling fabric gets plaited continuously in the man dye vessel.

Liquor circulation pump and filter:

A high-pressure liquor circulation pump is used to feed the dye liquor into the nozzle. It takes the liquor from the main dye vessel and feeds it to the nozzle. A filter is also attached with a liquor pump that cleans the dye liquor continuously.

Heat exchanger: 

A heat exchanger is mounted between the liquor circulation pump and the nozzle of the machine. The main function of the heat exchanger is to bring down the temperature when required. When the dyeing is completed, the cooling of the dye bath is performed with the help of this heat exchanger.

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Tuesday, January 25, 2022

HT-HP Package (cheese) dyeing machine, structure and working principle, advantages and disadvantages

Advantages of HTHP package( cheese) dyeing machine:


We make the dyed yarn through different processes. The dyed yarn can be made by adding colour during synthetic fibres production. The dyed yarn is also made by dyeing the natural fibres before spinning. The greige yarn is dyed after spinning by using either the hank dyeing method or the package (cheese) dyeing method. The package ( cheese) dyeing method has the below advantages over the hank dyeing method of yarn dyeing:

Knotless yarn results after package dyeing.

The material liquor ratio is less than the hank dyeing process.

The re-winding wastage is less than the hank dyeing process.

The washing fastness is very good in comparison to the hank dyeing process.

The shade variation is very hardly appeared in the package dyeing.

The dyeing of those yarns is possible in which the dye chemical get fixed above the boiling temperature. 

Dyes and chemicals consumption is less than the hank dyeing process. 

A bigger lot size is possible in the cheese dyeing process.

Less amount water is required in the cheese dyeing process. the effluent treatment cost is reduced in the cheese dyeing process.

Disadvantages of the cheese dyeing process:     

The cheese dyeing process has the below disadvantages:

The drying cost of the package dyeing is more than hank dyeing.

The bulkiness of the yarn is decreased.

The strength of the yarn is also decreased due to two times winding.

High care is required during the soft winding process.

Winding density variation in the soft winding process causes shade differences among the top, middle, and bottom layers of the yarn package.



Process sequence in the cheese (package) dyeing process:

The cheese( package) dyeing of yarn is completed in the below steps:

* Soft winding

* Colouration of yarn

* Hydro extraction

* Drying

* Re-winding

Soft winding:

The soft yarn package in the cheese form is prepared before the dyeing of the yarn.

The yarn is transferred onto the perforated cylindrical tubes of standard steel springs or perforated nylon tubes.

A soft winding machine is used to prepare the soft packages.

The packaging density of the cheese is kept in such a way that the liquor could penetrate the material.

If the yarn is wound on the perforated nylon tubes, there should not be any uncovered space over the tube. 

The top and bottom edges should be equally soft as the body of the package.


Colouration of yarn package:

The scouring, bleaching, and dyeing of the yarn package are carried out in the HT-HP package( cheese) dyeing machine. We will discuss the structure and working principle of the HT-HP yarn package dyeing machine.

Structure and working principle of HT- HP

package dyeing machine: 

The different parts and their functions of the HT-HP package dyeing machine are as below:

Bobbin carrier:

It consists of the number of perforated spindles to hold the soft packages in the column. The perforations at the bottom of these carriers allow bi-directional circulation of dye and other chemical solutions through the yarn packages. 



Autoclave or cylindrical pressure vessel: 

It is a high-pressure cylindrical vessel. 

It is made of high-quality stainless steel. 

The dye bath is filled inside this vessel. 

This vessel is connected with many other accessories. 

The bi-directional liquor pump is connected to the bottom of this vessel. 

A high-pressure lid is fitted at the top of this vessel. 

A high temperature and high-pressure silicon seal is mounted between the top of the vessel and lid. 

This silicone seal makes the lid airproof and prevents the leakage of steam and liquor. 

The pressure gauge is mounted on the side of the vessel to see the inside pressure of the vessel. 

A suitable safety valve is mounted on one side of the vessel.

When the inside vessel pressure increases more than normal pressure due to any mistake or unknown reason, the safety valve releases the inside vessel pressure. 

The increased steam pressure pushes the safety pin of the valve against the spring and excess pressure is released automatically. 

Overflow valve is fitted at the top of the sidewall of the vessel. 

If the water level is increased above the required level, the excess amount of water is eliminated through the overflow valve. 

A drain valve is fitted at the bottom of the vessel. 

It drains the previous dye bath when required. 

The vessel is also connected to the freshwater supply line. 

A valve is mounted between the water supply line and vessel to control the freshwater supply. 

The pressure vessel is also connected with the dosing tank and preparation tank. 

A temperature sensor is mounted inside the pressure vessel.

This sensor gets in contact with liquor and sends a signal to the digital process controller.

 




Clour and chemical dosing tank:


A side tank is used for the colour or chemicals liquor dosing into the high-pressure cylindrical vessel. 

It is fitted at one side of the cylindrical vessel. 

It is connected to the preparation tank and pressure vessel. 

The required amount of the chemical or colour is dissolved in the preparation tank. 

The prepared liquor is sent into the dosing tank with the help of a feeding pump. 

A colour injector pump sends the liquor gradually according to the process parameter. 

Colour and chemical preparation tank:

The preparation of colour or chemicals liquor is carried out in this tank. 

The prepared liquor is also stored in this tank for the next process.  

A stainless steel tank is used, the required amount of the chemical or colour is dissolved in this preparation tank. 

A motorised stirrer is fitted inside the preparation tank. 

 Stirrer helps to blend and mix the colour or chemicals in the water properly. 

The preparation tank is connected to the dosing tank with the help of a pipe. 

High-speed colour circulation pump:

A high-speed liquor circulation pump is used to feed the liquor in the yarn package. 

A bi-directional liquor circulation pump is fitted in the machine.

The pump rotates in clockwise and anticlockwise directions. 

In the one cycle of the pump, the liquor flows from the inside of the cheese to the outside of the cheese. 

When the rotating direction of the pump is reversed, the liquor flowing direction is also reversed. 

Now, the liquor flows from the outside of the cheese to the inside of the cheese. 

Pressure gauge and safety valve:

The pressure gauge is mounted on the side of the vessel to see the inside pressure of the vessel. 

A suitable safety valve is mounted on one side of the vessel.

When the inside vessel pressure increases more than normal pressure due to any mistake or unknown reason, the safety valve releases the inside vessel pressure. 

The increased steam pressure pushes the safety pin of the valve against the spring and excess pressure is released automatically. 

Temperature sensor:

A temperature sensor is mounted inside the pressure vessel.

This sensor gets in contact with liquor and sends a signal to the digital process controller.  

Cooling coil:

In some types of yarns, the dyeing temperature is increased and reduced gradually. 

The cooling coil helps to bring the below down dye bath temperature gradually. 

Steam connection: 

The steam injection into the trough is carried out by a steam pipe connected between the steam supply and the cylindrical vessel.

An automatic steam supply valve is connected with this steam pipe to switch on/off the steam supply. 

If electrical heaters are used, this steam supply pipe is not required.

Water supply connection:

The cylindrical vessel is connected with a freshwater supply pipe. 

A valve is used to start/stop the water supply in the cylindrical vessel as per requirement.

Drainage pipe and valve:

The drainage pipe and valve are fitted at the bottom of the cylindrical vessel. 

The water is drained into the wastewater line by this valve.

Air padding system:

The compressed air is supplied at the top of the high-pressure lid. the air is mixed with liquor. 

This air padding helps to reduce the material liquor ratio. 

The dyed and chemical costs are also reduced by this air padding system. 

Due to the low use of water, the effluent treatment cost is also reduced.

Digital process controller:

Basically, it controls the whole dyeing process. 

The required temperature is preset in the controller. 

The steam supply or electric supply of the heater is controlled by this digital controller. 

The processing time of each process is preset in this digital controller. 

Hydro extraction:

The yarn packages coming out from the machine contain a lot of moisture. 

The yarn packages are placed into the hydro extractor. 

The yarn packages are placed in the machine in such a way that it could not affect the centre of gravity of the machine after loading the yarn packages. 

In the other words, the weight of the material should be equally distributed in the machine during material placement. 

When the machine rotates, the maximum amount of water eliminates from the yarn due to centrifugal force getting developed during machine rotation. 

The yarn is taken out of the machine now.



Drying:

The yarn packages still contain an excessive amount of water in them after the hydro extraction process. 

Now, this moisture is evaporated by the drying process.

The yarn packages are dried in a hot air oven or radiofrequency drier, the yarn is placed in the hot air chamber specially designed for yarn packages. 

A blower fan blows the hot air upon the yarn. 

Electrical heaters or steam-heated pipes are used to heat the air. 

The heating temperature is kept around 105-110 degrees centigrade. 

The thermostat is used to control the inside temperature of the drying chamber. 

If the radiofrequency drier is used, the yarn packages are placed on the conveyor belt. 

This conveyor belt moves very slowly and carries the yarn packages inside the chamber. 

The yarn packages come out of the chamber after drying.





Yarn rewinding process:

The yarn is wound on the perforated nylon tubes or stainless steel springs. 

These tubes or springs are reused for soft winding many times and the cost of these tubes and springs is many times higher than the paper cones. 

When the drying of the yarn packages is completed, the yarn is transferred onto the paper cones with the help of a cone winding machine.

Please click on the below video link to watch the full topic in Hindi:


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