Saturday, October 20, 2018



Cotton fiber is the most suitable fiber for clothing. It is widely used all around the world. Beginning from garments, it is extensively used in table linen, kitchen linen, curtains, upholstery, quilts, comforters, cotton blankets, sheet-sets etc. Its characteristics make it the most popular and useful among all fibers. Its availability and easy biodegradable character make it the king of all fibers. It is cultivated in more than ninety countries of the world. The quality of the cotton fiber varies according to the regions where it is grown. The soil of the field and the climatic conditions play a very important role in the development of its characteristics. There are five “native types of cotton” commercially grown around the world. These are being given below:

      •  Egyptian cotton.

      •  Sea Island cotton.

      •  American Pima cotton.

      •  Asiatic cotton.

      •  American Upland cotton.

Egyptian Cotton:

This type of cotton is grown in Egypt and surrounding regions this country. This cotton fiber is light brown in color. This cotton has very good lusture (seen). It has very long fiber length (staple length) and fineness of this cotton is very good ( low micronare value). This type of cotton fiber has good fiber strength. Yarn spun from this cotton has good strength, lusture, the lowest level of hairiness. Finest yarn and fabrics can be produced by using this cotton.

GIZA 45:

The Giza 45 plants are cultivated in a very small area to the East of the Nile delta, and they represent only 0.4% of the total annual Egyptian cotton production. The fibres of the Giza 45 cotton production have an extraordinary staple length that easily surpasses 36mm and a unique uniformity index of 88.5%. Furthermore what makes this cotton exceptional amongst all extra-long staple cotton is the fineness of its fibres on average 2.95 michronaire.

Despite its fineness, the strength of the Giza 45 fibre remains high. This combination ensures extremely fine, durable fabrics, with an extraordinarily soft and silky touch for the most precious shirts in the world. 
Some varieties of egyptian cotton are given below table. in this table letter G has been used for Giza.

Sea Island Cotton:

This kind of cotton has silky look. It has very good lustre. The finest count of yarn can be produced by using Sea Island cotton. Due to its silky look, it can be blended with silk too. Its long staple fiber makes it suitable to be used in the finest cotton counts yarn. This type of cotton is more expensive than other types of cotton. Fine shirting fabrics are made with this cotton.

Pima Cotton:

The fibers of Pima cotton have extra long staple length. “Quality of Pima cotton is equivalent to that of the Egyptian cotton”. The strength, softness, durability, and absorbency of the Pima cotton make it one of the most popular and finest cotton for clothing, towels, and sheets etc.

Pima cotton can be categorized mainly into three groups according to characteristics of fibres such as strength, staple length, fineness, maturity ratio, uniformity index etc.
Phytogen: following varieties come under this group
Varieties of Pima cotton:

PHY811 RF, PHY 888 RF, PHY 805 RF, PHY 841 RF, PHY 881.

following varieties come under this group
Varieties of Pima cotton: DP 348 RF PIMA, DP 358 RF PIMA
Hazera: following varieties come under this group

Varieties of Pima cotton: HA1432

Asiatic Cotton:

“This kind of cotton is grown in the Indian subcontinent, China and near east”. Since this cotton has coarse and harsh fibers, therefore, it is not suitable for manufacturing fine cotton clothing(garments). “It is used to make cotton blankets, filters, bath mats, curtains table linen, kitchen linen, coarse clothes, padding materials, and home furnishing items etc”

American Upland Cotton:

Another commonly used type of cotton is the American Upland cotton. It is less expensive and of a basic quality, and is also used to make several types of fabrics. The versatility of the cotton makes it usable for manufacturing


Different type of cotton referred to in the trade is known as a variety of cotton”. A variety of cotton also refers to its characteristics such as fiber length, fiber fineness, fiber strength, colour grade and other that can be measured. These characteristics play important role in making a decision about its value and use. Cotton varieties are developed to suit specific growing regions in respective of environmental and quality of the soil.The main objective of development of various types of cotton varieties is to maximize yield potential (amount of cotton in kgs. per acre) and to improve cotton characteristics up to optimum level”.
Main varieties being grown commercially in the world are given below:

Varieties of American upland cotton:

common varieties of upland cotton are:

·       Delta.

·       Plain.

·       Eastern.

·       Acala

Different varieties of Indian cotton:

Bengal Deshi, J-34, S/g or D/r ,LRA,H-4,MECH-1, Shanker-6,Bunny,MCU-5(30-31-32-33-MM),DCH-32,
List of some Indian cotton varieties, out turn %,span length and growing states is given below:


You may also interested in the following articles:

Bursting strength of woven fabric

Bt. Cotton and advantages of bt. cotton

Cotton fibre length evaluation

Evaluation of cotton fibre fineness

Evaluation of cotton fibre maturity

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