Sunday, February 24, 2019

DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF WOVEN FABRIC , PROPERTIES OF WOVEN FABRIC

Dimensional stability:

The dimensional stability of a fabric is the ability to retain the original dimensions or shape of the fabric while being used for its required purposes (dyeing, finishing, washing or any other processes). The length and width of the fabric gets changed after any finishing process. Thus we can say that "the changes resulted in fabric dimensions (length and width) after finishing expressed in the term of percentage is called dimensional stability of the fabric". It is determined in warp direction (length) and weft direction (width) separately. It is greatly influenced by the following factors:

Yarn count and construction: 

Construction of the fabric has great influence on the dimensional stability of the fabric. The effect of the construction can be understood by the following example:
Suppose there are two fabrics A and B. Both the fabrics have the same GSM, warp count, weft count, material used in the yarn and number of threads per square inch. Fabric A has more ends per inch than B, and fabric A has fewer picks per inch than B. the shrinkage in the fabric A in the weft direction ( width wise) will be less than the fabric B. the shrinkage in the fabric A in warp direction (lengthwise) will be more than the fabric B.

Type of material: 

The type of material used in the fabric affects the dimensional stability of the fabric up to some extent. If the yarn has been spun with fine and long staple fibres, it will give better dimensional stability. Polyester fibre shows better dimensional stability than cotton fibre.

Yarn twist: 

The degree of yarn twist great impact on the dimensional stability of a fabric. If the count and construction of two fabric are identical, there will be a more dimensional change in the fabric having high twist yarn than the fabric having low twist yarn. The high twist yarn always tends to shrink when it comes under relaxing form. This tendency of yarn helps to shrink the fabric.

Weave: 

The weave of the fabric also plays a very important role in the dimensional stability of the fabric. The weave having long float length gives more shrinkage percentage than short length float weave. Weave like waffle and satin shrink more after washing. 

Grams per square meter:  

The weight per square meter of fabric directly influences the shrinkage percentage after washing. The fabrics having a low weight per meter always shrink more than high weight fabric. It happens due to more open space (air space) present in low weight fabric.  The ends and picks come much closer to each other after washing. It is possible only when the fabric has open space in it.
                                            
Related articles:

Thermal conductivity of the fabric


Tearing strength of woven fabric

Tensile strength of woven fabric

Elongation of woven fabric

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