when the fabric is used for garment, flat sheet, fitted sheet, car sheeting, table linen etc, it passes under various kind of situations like rubbing, stretching, lighting, raining etc. the rubbing of the fabric badly affect the fabric surface. This rubbing situation generates balls on the fabric surface. Thus we can say that the balls formation on the fabric surface during fabric wear due to the entanglement of protruding fibres is termed as pilling. These balls on the fabric surface forms due to rubbing. The pilling of the fabric is always a major fabric quality issue because it directly affects the fabric surface. Some factors influencing fabric pilling are given below:
Yarn quality: the quality of yarn to be used in the fabric has a major impact on pilling. The yarn having low hairiness always poses better pilling resistance. The combed or compact yarn helps to improve the pilling resistance of the fabric. The yarn spun from fine and long staple fibres always give high pilling resistance. The spun yarn always poses better pilling resistance than continuous filament yarn.
Type of material: the natural fibres have better pilling resistance than man-made fibres. The re-generated fibres also pose poor pilling resistance.
The degree of twist of yarn: the optimum amount of twist present in the yarn helps to improve the pilling resistance of the fabric because the degree of twist helps to hold the fibres together in the yarn and they do not come out of the yarn during rubbing of the fabric surface.
Weave of the fabric: the weave of the fabric has little impact on the pilling resistance of the fabric. The weave having more interlacing points shows better pilling resistance of the fabric. The plain weave poses better pilling resistance than twill or satin weave because the short float length prevents to come out the fibres on the fabric surface. The weaves having longer float length always result in the form of poor pilling resistance.
Count and construction of the fabric: the effect of the count and construction of the fabric can be understood by bellow example:
Suppose that two fabrics have identical warp and weft count. In this case, the fabric having more E.P.I. and P.P.I. will show better pilling resistance because of the firmness of the fabric.
Suppose that two fabrics have identical E.P.I and P.P.I.
In this case, the fabric having coarser warp count and weft count will show improved pilling resistance in the fabric.
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