Sunday, December 22, 2019

RAMIE FIBRE, CULTIVATION OF RAMIE FIBRE, PROPERTIES OF RAMIE FIBRE, GRADING OF RAMIE FIBRE, USES OF RAMIE FIBRE


RAMIE FIBRE:

The ramie is a natural fibre. It is mainly composed of cellulose. It is a bast fibre obtained from stem of the ramie plant. The ramie plant is normally harvested two to three times in a year.

The ramie fibre requires chemical processing to de-gum the fibre. The ramie fibre is one of the strongest natural fibre. It poses even greater strength wet conditions. The ramie fibre is known specially for its ability to hold shape, reduce wrinkwrinkle character. It provides silk like lustre to the fabric. It has slightly poor durability.

HISTORY OF RAMIE FIBRE:

The ramie fibre is being used since ancient age. The ramie fibre used  for wrapping of mummy in Egypt during the period of 5000- 3000 BC. The ramie was cultivated in China for many centuries.  The armers of ancient age of China used ramie fibre to weave the fabrics.

 In 20th century, the people used ramie fibre to make a open weave fabric called "mechera" for shirts and gowns to be used in warm climates.


BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF RAMIE:


        

CULTIVATION (PRODUCTION) OF RAMIE FIBRE:

SOIL AND CLIMATE REQUIRED:

The sandy loam or loamy, very sandy is considered as the best suitable soil for the production of ramie fibre plant. The plant is highly sensitive to soil moisture conditions.
The ramie's crop gets well developed in the areas having good irrigation system. The farmers should not sow this crop if there is a problem of rain water logging and floiding in their fields. The soil should not have the deficiency of calcium. The ph of the soil should be range from 5.5 to 5.6


The ramie plant gets maximum growth in a warm and humid climatic conditions. In the winter season, the atmospheric temperature reaches to almost freezing point. In the summer season, the atmospheric temperature varies between 25°C to 31°C. The ramie plant needs an average annual rain fall of 1500 mm - 3000 mm. The ramie plant gets achieved maximum growth if the rain fall gets equally distributed throughout the year. It is usually grown at a height less than 300 metres above the sea level. 80 % relative humidity is considered as the best for maximum growth of ramie plant.

PROPAGATION:

Ramie is propagated vegetatively through rhizomes for commercial production throughout the world. The rhizomes are obtained from the roots of healthy and diseases free plants which are dug out by a spade from an already established plantation. The rhizomes are then removed separately and are converted into  pieces of 10 cm. to 15cm. in length.
These pieces are planted in fields after cutting. These pieces can be stored under the place where sunlight directly does not reaches upon the pieces.


The propagation through rhizomes helps to ensure good sprouting. This practice helps to reduce the propagation cost too.

The quantity of rhizomes obtained from an unit area depends on the age of plantation and variety. Usually the quantity of rhizomes obtained from one hectare of 2 years old plantation can give enough planting material to cover at least 20 hectares of land.

DISTANCE OF PLANTING:

The rhyzomes pieces are normally planted in furrows spaced 40 cm. to 50 cm. apart. The rhyzomes are planted under 3 CMS. deep in the soil. The each piece is planted at 45 ° angle. The one third of the length of the piece is kept above the ground. The row to row distance keeps 80 - 100 cms. 

FERTILIZERS REQUIRED:

If the soil is rich, additional fertilizer of 80 kg N, 60 kg P2O and 60 kg K2O is recommended. If the soil is deficient such as sandy loam soil, higher rates of nitrogen and potassium are needed. Apply fertilizer using split method of application, spread out from 5 to 8 times annually.

FIBRE EXTRACTION METHOD:

Retting – extraction of fibre by means of soaking the stalks in running water, pond, lake of designed tank.
Raspador-decorticator – a twoman raspador-decorticator could produce 100 kgs of dried ramie fibre per day.

YIELD:

The ramie has an average yield of 1,575 kg of dry fibre based on three cuttings per hectare per year. Approximate potential yield of ramie per hectare (per year) may reach 2,700 to 4,800 kg of fibre per year. Dry fibre recovery ranges 
from 3.5% to 5%.

GRADING OF RAMIE FIBRE

The grading of ramie fibre is conducted as follows:

Decorticated qualities:




USES AND APPLICATION OF RAMIE FIBRE:

Uses of ramie fibre are given below:

Yams.

Clothing.

Men's and women's wears

Paper manufacturing industry. 

Packing accessories. 

Carpets.

Industrial sewing thread.

Fishing nets. 

Filtering industry.

Home furnishings.

Fire hose pipe of the clothes. 

Parachute clothe. 

PROPERTIES OF RAMIE FIBRE:


 The ramie fibre resists to growth of bacteria and mildew. 💘

The ramie is highly absorbent and therefore comfortable to wear, especially during warm weather.

It has stain repellent character.

It doesn't get affected  by mild acids.

It has very good dyeing affinity. 

 The strength of ramie gets increased in wet condition.

It requires high water temperatures during laundering.

It smooth lustre and appearance  gets improved with washing.

It shows very good dimensional stability.


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