Friday, March 20, 2020

SISAL FIBRE, CULTIVATION AND USES



                                 SISAL FIBRE     


HISTORY OF SISAL FIBRE:

• The time of originating of the sisal fibre is not confirmed.

• 19 th century:

The sisal cultivation got spread in Florida of USA, Brazil, Caribbean countries, kenya, Tanzania, and Asian continent.

• Year 1930:

The sisal was planted commercially in Brazil.

Year 1948:

The Brazil exported sisal fibres to regions of the rest of the world.

Year 1960:

The Brazil established many spinning units to produce yarn from sisal fibre.

BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF SISAL FIBRE:

Biological name - Agave sisalana


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SISAL FIBRE:

Chemical composition of sisal fibre is given in below table:


SISAL FIBRE CULTIVATING COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD

Following are the major sisal fibre growing countries in the world:

South America: Brazil

North America: Hati, Mexico.

Africa: Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa, Cuba, Madagascar, Mozambique.

Asia: China, Indonesia, Thailand.

USES OF SISAL FIBRE

Major sisal fibre uses are given below:

Agricultural uses:

Binder's twine, bale binding twine,

Paper industry: 

 The lower quality sisal fibre gets used to make paper.

Floor covering:

The higher quality of sisal fibres gets used to make carpet, rugs, mattresses and  wall covering.

Other uses:

Dart board, buffing cloth, Filter manufacturing, geotextiles, handicrafts, automobile industry,

CULTIVATION(PRODUCTION) OF SISAL FIBRE

Sisal fibre is cultivated in following steps:

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT PLANT:

The sisal fibres are obtained from Agave Sisalana, a native of Mexico. The hardy plant grows well all year round in hot climate and arid regions. The sisal plant can be cultivated in most soil types except clay and has low tolerance to very moist and saline soil conditions.  The husbandry is relatively simple as it is resilient to disease and its input requirement is low compared to other crops. The sisal can be harvested from 2 years after planting and its productive life can reach up to 12 years, producing from 180 to 240 leaves depending on location.

PROPAGATION:

The propagation of sisal generally gets done by using bulbils produced from buds in the flower stalk. The sisal propagation is also done by suckers growing around the base of the sisal plant. These methods of sisal propagation does not offer  any potential genetic improvement in the plant. Meristematic tissue culture (MST) offers considerable potential for the development of improved genetic material in the propagation of sisal plant.

The sisal plant has a 7-10 year life-span. It normally produces 200 - 250 commercially usable leaves. Each leaf of sisal plant contains an average of around 1000 fibers. The fibers account for only about 4% of the plant by weight. The sisal is considered a plant of the tropics and subtropics season. The sisal plant reaches to maximum growth above 25° C and sunshine.

DECORTICATION ( FIBRE EXTRACTION):

A process of fibre extraction from the leaves of sisal plant is called decortication. The leaves get crushed and beaten by using a rotating wheel set. This wheel set contains blunt knives in it. Only the fibres remain. These fibres are washed in water. The waste part of leaves gets removed away from the fibres. Now these washed fibres are kept under sun light for drying. The dried fibres are brushed manually.
The sisal fibres are ready completely. These fibres are packed into bales and are transported to spinning process.

PROPERTIES:

Sisal Fibre is exceptionally durable with a low maintenance with minimal wear and tear and it is Recyclable.  Sisal fibres are obtained  from the outer leaf skin, removing the inner pulp. Fine fibre available as plaid, herringbone and twill. Sisal fibres are Anti static, does not attract or trap dust particles and does not absorb moisture or water easily. The fine texture takes dyes easily and offers the largest range of dyed colours of all natural fibres. It exhibits good sound and impact absorbing properties. “Its leaves can be treated with natural borax for fire resistance properties”.

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