The velvet fabrics have cut piles on one side of the fabric surface. There are two types of velvet fabrics manufactured. One is known as warp pile fabric and another is called weft pile fabric. Cotton, acrylic, viscose filament, and polyester yarn are widely used to manufacture velvet fabrics. Either multi-plies spun yarn or multi–filaments viscose yarn is used to make piles. The velvet fabrics are widely used to make garments, jackets, purses, car sheeting, ( automobile industry), quilts, pillow covers etc.
In this velvet fabric, the warp yarn makes piles on the fabric surface. Two series of warp and one series of weft are used to make this pile fabric. The one warp series is known as ground warp and the other series is known as pile warp. Since the pile side is the face of the fabric, so that superior quality pile warp yarn is used to make warp pile velvet.
TYPES OF PILES:
DEFECTS OF WARP PILE VELVET FABRIC:
Since the velvet fabric is entirely different from flat woven fabric so that the fabric defect in velvet fabric appear in a different form. The main defects of the velvet fabric are given below.
1- missing pile end:
if the pile end gets missing in the velvet fabric, it appears clearly on the fabric surface. The ground fabric starts to look due to a missing pile in the form of warp wise deep bar. If the pile end gets missed, it appears in both fabrics ( top and bottom fabric). This defect is mendable if the pile end is missed for a short length.
2- Missing ground end:
If the ground end gets missed, it appears in the form of piles fraying on the face side. This defect appears in one fabric. This is a repairable defect.
3- Missing pick:
If the pick gets missed in any one fabric layer, the piles do not form over that place, a deep weft bar appears in both fabric ( top and bottom fabric). It is an unrepairable defect.
4- Rough cutting:
the layer separation of velvet is always a very big issue. The cutting blade gets sharpened after insertion of every alternate pick. Improper sharpening of the cutting blade causes rough cutting of velvet fabric. The piles begin to come out from the fabric. Uneven fabric appearance results due to rough cutting of velvet fabric. If rough-cutting appears on the fabric surface, both the fabric gets rejected.
5- Blade marks:
If there is excessive clearance between knife carriage and knife carriage rail it causes partial or full blade marks in the velvet fabric. The pile height for one pick is either increased or decreased. This defect appears as a weft bar partially or full fabric width. This is an unrepairable defect. This defect appears in both fabrics ( top and bottom).
6- Low pile height bands:
in this kind of defect, the pile height for a very short length is decreased suddenly. It appears like weft wise band in the fabric. It generates if the pile warp tension is increased suddenly for a very short period during weaving. It also generates if tension if either the bottom ground beam or the top ground beam decreases suddenly for a very short period during weaving. This is an unrepairable defect.
7- Pile warp bands:
this defect results if the warp tension of pile warp or any ground warp does not maintain regularly. The low and high weft wise bands generate in both fabrics. The fabric gets rejected.
8- Height difference between left and right pile.:
This kind of defect appears due to improper setting of top and bottom jaws. This defect appears in both fabrics ( top and bottom).
FINISHING OF VELVET FABRIC:
The grey velvet fabric has a lot of fibre fluff in it. The many fibres also appear on the fabric surface. These fibres make the fabric surface uneven. The seen ( lustre) of the fabric also does not come out clearly. The cut pile fibres do not open fully. These unopened fibres of pile yarn affect the richness of the fabric surface. The grey velvet fabric is passed through a velvet finishing machine. Following actions take place in the finishing machine:
First of all, the fabric passes over the beating roller, the dust and fluff eliminate in this beating zone.
The face side ( pile side) of the fabric comes into contact with a raising roller. The rotating raising roller helps to open the twist of pile yarn.
This is the last acting zone. This zone consists of one rotating spiral blade at high speed. One fixed blade is also mounted over a spiral blade. The clearance between both blades is kept minimum. When the fabric passes into this zone, the extra fibres on the face of the fabric get cut evenly. The surface gets much clean and clear. The seen( lustre) of the fabric come out clearly. The richness of the fabric also improved.
The W- pile and V-pile on alternate pick show fast pile structure. The regular V-pile and U- pile show poor fastness of pile structure. This kind of structure needs special treatment to improve the fastness of structure. A coating of latex rubber is applied to the back of the fabric. This treatment helps to improve the fastness of the pile structure in the fabric.
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