It is a significant characteristic of cotton fibres. The maturity of cotton fibre is an indicator that expresses "the degree of development of cotton fibre". The maturity of fibres tells us how much development has been taken place in the fibres. The cotton fibres do not have regular development within the sample or the fibres obtained from the same seed too. This difference among the maturity of various fibres appears because of the variations in the degree of the secondary thickening or deposition of cellulose in fibres.
In mature fibres, "the secondary wall's thickness is very high". In some fibres, the lumen gets invisible too.
In the immature fibres, due to some physiological reasons, the secondary deposition of cellulose has not taken sufficiently and in maximum fibres, the secondary thickening is practically got absent.
The presence of immature fibres appears as a defect in yarn, grey fabric, and processed fabric. "Excessive neps" appear on the yarn surface if the cotton has immature fibres in it. The neps appearing in this yarn "influence the appearance of the fabric greatly".
The presence of an excessive degree of immature fibres in the yarn results in the form of "weight losses in processing". The balls of immature fibres appearing on the fabric surface require an "extra dose of caustic soda and hydrogen peroxide" to dissolve the same during processing. This extra dose of chemicals causes increases in the" processing cost".
The presence of excessive immature fibres also "influences the gsm of finished fabric". Due to excessive weight loss occurring during dyeing, the gsm is of the processed fabric decreased.
The presence of immature cotton fibres in the fabric also influences the "dyeing affinity" of the fabric. The immatured fibres have very poor dyeing affinity. The colour of dyed fabric get "uneven" if excessive immature fibres are present in the fabric.
Now the observations are recorded accurately. After completion of the observation process, the fibres are classified into different maturity groups depending upon the basis of the relative dimensions of wall thickness and lumen of the fibres. However, the procedures followed in different countries for sampling and classification differ in some respects. The swollen fibres are classed into three groups as follows