Wednesday, April 17, 2019



" Any kind of oil or grease mark appearing on the fabric surface of either grey or dyed fabric due to stain, dust, use of lubrication oil or grease in loom, warping machine and sizing machine is termed as oil ,stain, dust and grease marks in the fabric".
We know that proper and regular lubrication requires for any machine to run it efficiently without any trouble. We also know that today's machines has central lubrication system mostly. If this system is not possible to adopt for any portion of the loom, then that portion is covered to prevent direct contact of yarn or fabric with oil or grease. We also know that carbon and dust deposition always take place in the weaving shed.

Now a straight question arises how oil, stain, dust, and grease marks appear on the fabric surface. Simple answer of this question is the wrong and improper working practice of fitter, jobber, beam gaiter, operator, warper, knotter, technician etc. and handling of material like yarn, beam and cloth roll. We will discuss all possible reasons in detail in this article.

1 - Handling of yarn:

The material flow or material handling is very important factor in weaving. Today the yarn comes in the weaving in carton packing. Every cone is packed in the polythene bag. This kind of packing ensures that there may not be oil or grease contamination during transportation till bag is not opened. If material is not unloaded carefully from the container , there is always a possibility of torn out of cartons. As the the carton breaks, the cones fall on the floor and it rubs with floor. The polythene bag gets damaged and the yarn comes in direct contact of floor. If the floor is not cleaned or it is contaminated with oil, stain, dust or grease, the yarn gets contaminated with oil, stain, dust or grease. This oil , stain, dust and grease reflect after weaving on the fabric surface. The unloading of material should be safe and carefully. Yarn should be stored property to avoid this contamination. Yarn should always be unloaded on the neat and clean floor. You should always keep in mind that carton and polythene bag may be broken during unloading of material. Luggage carrying trolley must be used to avoid the probability of cartons breakage. Sometimes labourer drag the carton on the floor for shifting of material. This practice should be avoided to reduce the possibility of cartons breakage. 

2 - Handling and storage of of Warper's and Weaver's beams:

The handling and storage of Warper's and Weaver's beam is so important in weaving. Empty beams and loaded beams should be stored in neat and clean beams godown. The beams should never be dragged on the floor. Beam carrying trolley must be used for beam transportation. If beams are being stored for long time, then these beams should be covered by polythene sheet otherwise beam may be contaminated with oil , stain,dust, or grease. The technician normally throws the dirty clothes after cleaning a part or own hands at any place of department. This used cloth contaminated with oil, stain, dust or grease can leave the oil, stain, dust or grease marks on the warp sheet and hence creates oil, stain, dust and grease marks on the fabric surface.
Technicians should always use a dustbin to keep  these contaminated cloth with oil, stain, dust and grease.

3 - Handling and storage of cloth rolls:

The most important issue is the handling and storage of loaded cloth rolls in the weaving department. Generally cloth roll trolley is used for doffing of cloth rolls. Weaver and doffer always try to make maximum fabric length on a cloth roll to decrease loom stoppage period. The cloth roll becomes heavy due to excessive fabric length on it. Heavy weight of cloth roll creates big trouble during doffing. Sometimes it falls down on the floor in place of doffing trolley. Since we know the floor has always a chance of oil, stain, dust and grease contamination. The cloth gets contaminated with oil, stain, dust and grease residews present in the floor. This contamination appears in grey or dyed fabric.
Weaver should select a doffing length in such a way that there is not any trouble during doffing.
In the wider width fabric, there is always a possibility to touch the cloth with the floor during transportation.Thus fabric may get contaminated with oil, stain, dust and grease. The doffer should be careful during cloth roll transportation and should make sure that the cloth is not touching floor during transportation.

4 - Proper and regular cleaning of warping machine, sizing machine, looms:

Regular cleaning of warping, sizing and looms plays very important role in generation of oil , stain, dust and grease marks in the fabric. When the fibers fluff gets deposit in the machine and this fluff gets contaminated with oil or grease during lubrication , it may come into contact of fabric , warp beam and yarn during cleaning of machine through compressed air. The contaminated fluff may also drop between fabric and take up roller. Hence oil, stain, and grease marks appear on the fabric surface. The machines cover may also be touched by technicians after or during lubrication. When the Weaver touches the machine cover, his hands also get contaminated with with oil and grease. This oil and grease transfer to fabric and yarn.
The technician should not tooch the machine cover with oil contaminated hand to avoid the oil and grease mark.
The all machines should be cleaned regularly to prevent the deposition if fluff in the machines.

The cleaning of machines with compressed air should be done in such a way that the fluff did not drop on cloth roll, warp beam and yarn sheet.

5 - Proper and regular cleaning of material handling trolley:

The fabric, beam, and yarn are transfered from one to another place with the help of various kind of trolleys. The fabric or yarn always comes in the direct contact with trolley. If the material handling trolley gets contaminated with oil , stain, dust or grease, the oil, stain, dust or grease marks generate in the fabric.
Please make sure that the surface of  material handling trolley which comes in direct contact of yarn or fabric is free of oil, stain, dust and grease contamination.

6- Proper and regular replacements of oil seals:

The oil seal is a part, which prevent to leack the oil from different gear boxes. If seal is worn out due to long time use, the oil leackage is started. This oil comes with the contact of fabric many times. Hence oil marks are formed
The oil seals should we replaced regularly after a definite time of interval.

7 - Covering of manual lubrication part of machine:

It is a general practice of the technician that they leave open the cover of manual lubrication part. They think that they will fit the machine cover after  seeing the results of their technical settings done by them. This observation time is elongated day after day but covers are not mounted on the machines. The chances of getting contamination of oil and grease are increase.

Technician should mount the covers on the machine after a definite observation period. This helps to reduce the chances of oil and grease marks.

8 - Neat and clean working culture of technicians, jobber, beam gaiter, knotter and.operators:

This is the most important aspect of any production line. The rejection ratio of the material is directly linked with this aspect. Everyone (from Department helper to manager) plays an important and decisive role in the production line. Any type of negligence of single player can be the reason of loss of whole match. Why are we talking about neat and clean culture of departmen because the oil marks, grease marks, stain marks and dust marks are directly associated with the neat and clean culture of department. What is it? It is the direction of thinking of everyone who is working in production department. Since we know that technician, jobber, operator , helper, knotter, warper, and sizer are directly linked with fabric production activities, these person should always think about neat and clean culture of department. They should always make efforts to keep the department neat and clean. The neat and clean atmosphere always help to reduce the probability of oil marks, grease marks, stain marks, and dust mark in the fabric.

9-Regular cleaning of humidification plant's air defusers:

The relative humidity of the weaving department is regulated artificially. A humidification plant regulates the relative humidity of the weaving department. The moisture mixed air is circulated through air defusers in the department. The carbon of atmosphere begins to deposit on the air defusers. After a definite time this carbon and dirty fluff begins to drop on the machine and the stain marks are created in the fabric.
There should be regular cleaning of air defusers after a certain time of interval to avoid this problem.

10- Regular cleaning if loom shed floor:

We know well that the loom department floor gets contaminated oil, grease, stain, and dust due to routine work and movement of workers. Daily floor cleaning reduces the chances of oil, grease, stain and dust mark when the yarn or fabric get touched with floor.

11 - Proper and regular cleaning of false ceiling of loom shed:

Even after taking all measures, the flying fluff continues to deposit on walls , false ceiling of shed. Dust and dirty fluff begin to drop on the yarn and fabric. Thus stain marks are generated in the fabric.

The walls pillers, and false ceiling should be cleaned after a regular time of interval.
Removal of oil marks, stain marks, dust marks and grease marks:

If the oil marks, stain marks, dust marks, and grease marks are appearing during grey fabric inspection, the fabric should not be issued to the dyeing department without pre- treatment if these marks.

If there are oil and grease marks in the fabric, the organic solvent should be used to remove the oil and grease marks. A high pressure spot cleaning gun is used to apply the organic solvent on the oil or grease affected area.

If there are stain marks in the fabric, a good quality stain remover is used . It is applied with the help of tooth brush on the stain affected area before dyeing.

A sufficient dose of  good quality stain remover should be used during fabric pre- treatment.
Please note these marks do not remove all time complete with this treatment. A weaver should always keep in his mind that prevention is better than sure.

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