Thursday, March 12, 2020

ABACA FIBRE, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ABACA FIBRE, AND USES OF ABACA FIBRE


ABACA FIBRE:

The abaca is a bast fibre. The abaca fibre gets extracted from the stalk of the plant. The abaca is also known as Manila hemp. It is a Musasea family plant native to Asia and planted in humid areas including in the Philippines and East of Indonesia. Abaca fibres gets used extensively  to produce ropes, woven fabrics, tea bags, etc. It is also called biodegradable and sustainable fibre. Abaca is considered the strongest of natural fibres. The abaca fibre is more resistant to saltwater decomposition than the most of the vegetable fibres. The abaca fibre possesses higher tensile strength and lower elongation in both wet and dry states in comparison of rayon and nylon fibre. The Philippines is the world’s largest producer and supplier of abaca fibre for cordage and pulp for specialist paper. It supplies 85% of the needed abaca fibre around the globe.

HISTORY OF ABACA FIBRE

Year 1925 - it was cultivated in large scale in Sumatra by Dutch.

Year 1925 - the abaca plants were commercially grown in America by U.S. govt.

Year 1930 - it was commercially cultivated in U.K.

Today's the abaca gets commercially cultivated in Philippines, Ecuador, and Costa Rica. The Philippines produces 85 % of abaca in the world.
                             
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ABACA FIBRE

Biological classification of abaca fibre is given below:




CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ABACA FIBRE

Chemical composition of abaca fibre is given in below table:




MAJOR ABACA FIBRE CULTIVATING COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD

The major abaca fibre cultivating countries in the world are as follows:

Philippines

Ecuador

Costa Rica

USES OF ABACA FIBRE:

Abaca fibres are used in following products:

Cordage products - ropes, twines, marine cordage, binders, cord.

• Paper and Filter industry:

paper manufacturing, tea bags, filter paper, mimeograph stencil, base tissue, base paper, Cigar paper, currency paper, chart file folders, envelopes, time cards, book binders and parchment    paper, Microglass air filters media, x-ray negative, optical lens wiper, vacuum filter, oil filter.

• Medical uses:

Medical gas masks and gowns, diapers, hospital linens, bed sheets.

Handicrafts:

Paper sheets, stationeries, all-purpose cards, lamp shades, balls, dividers, placemats,    bags, photo frames and albums, flowers, table clocth.

Fiber crafts:

handbags,  placemats, rugs, carpets, purses and wallets, fishing nets, door mats, table cloth.

Building construction industry:
roofing tiles, floor tiles, hollow blocks, boards, reinforcing fiber concrete.

Other applications:

wigs, grass skirts, wire insulator and cable, automobile component.

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