Wednesday, November 21, 2018
FABRIC PROPERTIES PART - IV
19 - Breathability of fabric: the breathability of the fabric is very important and desirable characteristic for those fabrics which are used to manufacture the garments. This characteristic is directly associated with comfort for the wearer of the clothing during routine outdoor activities. The breathability of a fabric tells us how much water vapor can pass through the fabric. Thus we can say that the rate of water vapor transmission through a fabric or the rate of the amount of water vapor to be passed through the fabric is called the breathability of the fabric. It is measured in grams/metre²/day.
The factors influencing the breathability are given below:
Construction, yarn count and weight per square unit of the fabric: the count of yarn, the number of threads per square inch and weight per square meter of the fabric are associated with the breathability of fabric because all these fabric parameter directly influence the airspace present in the fabric. The influence of all these parameters can be understood by the following examples:
Example A: if the GSM and the number of threads per square inch of two fabrics are equal, then the count of the warp count and weft count play their role to affect the breathability of the fabrics. In this case, the fabric woven with finer count will show better breathability.
Example B: if the GSM, warp count and weft count of two fabrics are identical, the fabric having a lower number of threads per square inch will show the better result of breathability.
Example C: If the warp count, weft count and the number of threads per square inch in two fabrics are similar to each other, then the fabric having higher GSM will give poor breathability. In this case, the weave of the fabric also plays important role in the breathability.
Type of material used in the fabric: the type of material greatly influences the breathability of the fabric. The synthetic material poses poor breathability of the fabric. Spun yarn has better breathability than continuous filament yarn. The micro fibres pose better breathability than ordinary fibres. The fine and long staple fibres show better breathability than coarse and short staple fibres.
Weave: if the GSM, warp count, weft count and the number of threads per square inch of two fabric are identical, then the fabric weave plays a decisive role in the breathability of the fabric. The plain weave poses poor breathability than twill and satin because plain weave has the lowest float length. This short float length helps to reduce the airspace present in the fabric. Here we can say that the fabric having lower airspace always poses poor breathability.
20 - Washability of fabric: this is a very important property of a fabric. This property has a direct and strong relation with some other fabric properties. This property plays a decisive role in the determination of very important fabric properties which affect the fabric surface, handle, colour fastness, the life of the fabric, touch and feel. Since we know that the fabrics are washed at a regular interval of the time after use, therefore the fabric should always the best possible washability. Ability of a fabric to wash manually or mechanically with water and soap without a change in colour, dimensional stability, touch, feel and the appearance of the fabric is called the washability of the fabric.
It depends upon the yarn quality, type of material used and the quality of dyeing etc.
21 - Coefficient of friction: the coefficient of friction of the fabric tells about the frictional characteristic of the fabric surface. The coefficient of friction of a fabric is the tangent of an angle at which a block covered with fabric begins to slide due to its own weight when it is kept over the inclined surface covered with same fabric. This is property which is directly associated with the smoothness of the fabric. The factor affecting the coefficient of friction are given below:
Type of yarn: the fabric made of spun yarn starts to slide at a higher angle than continuous filament yarn because the spun yarn has a much broken surface area in comparison of continuous filament yarn. The continuous filament yarn having lower TPM ( turns per meter) starts to slide at a lower sliding angle. It is happed just because of a low degree of twist present in the yarn.
Type of material: The silk fibre has the lowest sliding angle among all the natural fibres. The most of the natural fibres have greater sliding angle than synthetic fibres
Weave of the fabric: the satin weave has more smoothness than plain weave. This surface smoothness helps to reduce sliding angle in a satin weave.
Finishing agent used in the fabric: the coefficient of friction of a fabric is directly associated with the final fabric finish.
22 - Sewed seam strength: when the two fabrics join together in stitching, the product needs equal strength at the point of joint as the original the fabric. The seam strength of fabric enables about the durability of a garment and other product. The sewed seam strength of the fabric is a very important property of a fabric. A fabric using in garment should have better sewed seam strength because there are always too chances of slippage of fabric at stitching joints in the garments. When the fabric to be using in garments comes under stretching load during routine outdoor activities, and as the stretching load increases, the fabric on the stitching joints also starts to slip if it has poor sewed seam strength.
The factors influencing the sewed seam strength are given below:
Yarn count, construction and GSM of the fabric: the yarn count, construction of the fabric and GSM of the directly affect the sewed seam strength of the fabric. You can understand the influence of these fabric parameters with the help of the following examples:
Fabric A: If yarn count and GSM of two fabrics are identical.
In this case, the fabric having a greater number of threads per square inch will give improved sewed seam strength.
Fabric B: If the yarn count and construction of two fabrics are identical.
In this case, the fabric having higher GSM shows better sewed seam strength.
Fabric C: If the construction and GSM of two fabrics are identical.
In this case, the fabric woven with coarser count poses better sewed seam strength.
Weave: The weave of a fabric plays a very important role in the sewed seam strength of the fabric. The weave having more number of interlacing points in repeat always gives better sewed seam strength because these interlacing point provide an adhesive force between warp and weft of the fabric. Since we know that the plain weave has a maximum possible number of interlacing points in repeat, therefore plain weave poses maximum sewed seam strength among all weaves.
Type of material used: the type of material influences the sewed seam strength up to some extent. The spun yarn has better sewed seam strength than filament yarn. The natural fibres poses better sewed seam strength than man-made fibres.
23 - Sewed seam slippage: it is a very important property of fabric. It ensures to prevent slippage of seam during wear, abrasion and stress in the garment. When the sewing needle penetrates the fabric during stitching, there are always a chance of rupture of yarn due to sewing needle but a property of the fabric prevents to be ruptured the yarn of the fabric. When the sewing needle penetrates the fabric, the yarn slides in either left or right side of sewing needle due to airspace present in the fabric. The mobility of yarn in the fabric save the yarn to be ruptured during stitching. If the yarn has poor yarn mobility in the fabric, the stitching needle can rupture the yarn which results in the form of sewed seam slippage in the garments. It is greatly influenced by fibre content, yarn count, construction, compact ness of the fabric and the number of threads per square inch of the fabric. The fabric construction (EPI, PPI, count, weave type) play a major role in the performance of sewed seam slippage of the fabric. The cover factor increases with the increase in EPI and PPI, thus resulting in greater fabric strength, the greater is the resistance to fabric and seam breakage.
24- Flammability: This is a very important characteristic of the fabric. Flammability of the fabric is the characteristic of the fabric that pertain to its relative ease of ignition and relative ability to sustain combustion. It depends upon the type of material used in the fabric. It is a very important property for children wears. The synthetic fibres start to ignite faster than natural fibres. The wool fibre burns slower than other natural fibres. The compact and heavy fabric take more time to ignite than loose and light weight fabrics.
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