Definition of stitch in knitted fabric:
The smallest dimensionally stable unit of any knitted fabric is known as a stitch. It consists of a yarn loop that is held together by being intermeshed with another stitch or loop. The stitch is composed of a head, two legs, and two feet.
Different types of stitch formation in the weft knitting process:
The types of various stitches getting in the weft knitting process are given below:
Knit stitch or plain stitch:
When the needle gets raised enough high by the camming action to obtain the yarn in the hook portion of the needle and the old loop is below the latch. As the needle descends, the knit stitch is formed. The structure of plain or knit stitch is given below:
When the legs of the stitch are below and the feet are above the newly created stitch, this type of stitch is called the purl stitch.
When the needle is raised by camming action to obtain the yarn in the hook, it is not raised high enough to clear the previously formed loop below the latch. The needle obtains two loops in the hook. In this situation, the tuck stitch forms when it knits at the next course.
The single needle may tuck at successive before being cleared resulting in the vertical tuck which extends along a wale for a number of courses. Four courses are a maximum limit otherwise loops get tightened and yarn breakage occurs. It is also possible to form a horizontal tuck stitch by tucking an adjoining needle.
Effects of tuck stitches:
The effects of tuck stitch are given below:
1- The fabric having a tuck stitch is thicker than a knit stitch because of the yarn accumulation in stitches at tucking places.
2 - The structure with the tuck stitch is wider than knit stitches.
3 - The loop shape has a wider base at stitches.
4 - The tuck stitch structure gets less extensible because the loop length is shortened. at every tuck stitch.
5 - The tuck stitched fabric is heavier in GSM than knit stitch fabric due to the thick nature of the tuck stitch.
6 - The tucks stitched fabric is more open and porous than the knit stitch fabric.
7 - The tuck stitch is also used to get a fancy effect by using coloured yarn.
Miss or float stitch:
A float stitch occurs only when the yarn is presented to the needle but the yarn is not taken by the hook of the needle. Here the needle is not activated upward to receive the yarn that is presented to it. Hence it will retain the old loop in the hook. The long float in the back is not desirable which causes snagging problems.
Effect of float stitch:
It is used when an unwanted coloured yarn is to be hidden completely from the fabric surface being used. The unwanted coloured yarn floats at the back instead of tucking. A uniform texture is obtained by floating and yarn can be saved. The main effects of float stitch are given below.
1 - Float stitch makes the fabric thinner than tuck stitched fabric.
2 - There no yarn accumulation takes place in float stitch.
3 - It makes the fabric narrower as there is no looped configuration.
4 - The whole structure is pulled to maximum width.
5 - The float stitched fabric gets less extensible than knit stitched or tuck stitched fabric.
6 - The fabric gets lighter in gsm due to the minimum yarn used in the construction.
7 - The float stitched fabric gets less rigid in comparison to other weft knitted fabrics.
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