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The warp and weft interlace to each other in the fabric according to design at always a right angle. The design pattern is referred to as weave.
The yarn running in the longitudinal or vertical direction is called a warp. Yarn count using in the warp yarn is referred to as warp count.
The transverse or horizontal yarn in the fabric is called weft or filling. The yarn count using in the weft yarn is referred to as weft count.
The individual (one) yarn of warp in the fabric is called the end. The number of vertical or longitudinal yarns or threads per unit length in the fabric is referred to as ends per unit length. It is measured in ends per inch, ends per centimetre and ends per decimetre.
The individual (one) yarn or thread of the weft yarn is called a pick. the number of horizontal or transverse yarn or threads per unit length in the fabric is referred to as picks per unit length. It is measured in picks per inch, picks per centimetre and picks per decimeter.
It is measured in inches, centimetres or meters etc. The distance between both the selvedge of the fabric is called fabric width.
It is a very important parameter of the fabric. it is measured in grams, ounces, and pounds etc. This term is widely used to refer to the quality of the fabric. If the weight of one square meter of the fabric is measured in grams then it is called GSM of the fabric. If the weight of one square yard of the fabric is measured in grams then it is called the GYM of the fabric. The weight of one square meter or yard is also measured in lbs. and ounces.
It is expressed in the term of percentage. When the fabric is woven, the warp threads shrink because of the interlacing of the weft. If we weave one meter of fabric, more than one meter of warp length will be required to weave this one meter of the fabric.
The warp contraction % tell us how much the length of the warp will shrink after weaving. suppose a weaver make a warp beam of 1000 meter length after weaving he gets 950 meters of the fabric. Thus 50 meters warp contracted after weaving. The warp contraction in terms of percentage will be:
The warp regain tells us how much warp length will be required to weave one meter of the fabric.
It is expressed in the term of percentage. It is the ratio of difference (between straightened pick length and fabric width) to fabric width expressed in the term of percentage is called weft crimp. This term may also know as weft regain.
The sequence of interlacement of warp and weft is referred to as weave. It is a very important parameter.
The sequence of passing the ends through the dents of the reed is called denting order.
In today’s weaving technology, three types of the selvedge are possible ie. Conventional selvedge, tucking-in selvedge and leno selvedge. Therefore it is necessary to know the type of selvedge in the fabric before accepting the weaving order.
When the multi-colour (stipe or check fabric) warp is used to weave the fabric, the sequence of colours in the warp is determined.
In the multi-colour weft fabric, the sequence of colours in the weft of the fabrics is referred to as the weft pattern.
Many special effects can be created in the fabric by using different techniques. Pleated and sheer sucker fabrics are produced by using two different series of warp. Variable pick density can be used in the fabric also. Special effects can be produced by making take-up motion inoperative.
New English count ( Ne), an indirect yarn count system
Fabric defects due to yarn faults
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