Jigger dyeing machine(a fabric dyeing machine):
* The jigger machine is a fabric dyeing machine. this machine is getting used for a long time for the dyeing of the woven fabric.
* The scouring, bleaching, and dyeing in the full-width form are carried out by the jigger dyeing machine.
* The scouring, bleaching, and dye solution is filled in the trough.
* The fabric passes through the medium of chemical solution at the bottom of the machine from one roller to another.
* When all the fabric from one roller has passed through the bath and the fabric gets transferred on the other roller, the moving direction of the fabric is reversed.
* Each fabric passage from one roller to another roller is called "end"
* The number passages are always kept in even numbers in the jigger machine process
Various processes carried out in Jigger machine:
* Combined scouring and bleaching is carried out in Jigger machine Dyeing and washing:
* The object of dyeing is a uniform application of colouring matter on textile material.
* Dyeing in the jigger machine is called the “Exhaust dyeing” technique.
* Careful control of the dyeing temperature, pH and auxiliary chemical concentrations is often necessary to obtain level, well-penetrated dyeing.
* After dyeing, the material is rinsed to remove unfixed dyes and so it may need additional washing in the jigger dyeing machine.
Basic structure and working principle of the
modern Jumbo Jigger machine:
Fabric passage in jigger dyeing machine:
Colour and chemical trough:
The colour and chemical trough is made of good quality stainless steel. The guide rollers are fitted on the steel frame. These guide rollers guide the fabric during fabric passage in the liquor. This colour and chemical trough is designed in such a way that its design allows a constant and controlled liquor ratio in the dyeing process. The colour and chemical trough also allow washing at high efficiency with minimum liquor content. The intended liquor ratio is a minimum of 1:4.
Stainless steel compartment:
The machine consists of an enclosed stainless steel compartment with 6 mm thick sides. This compartment has inclined doors and heated door frames, which prevent dripping of condensate on the fabric.
Take-up and Let-off rollers:
Two stainless steel rollers are used in the jigger dyeing machine. One is called a take-up roller and the other is called a let-off roller. These rollers move on the bearings. The fabric is wound upon these rollers during operations. The fabric being processed is transferred on one roller by a suitable arrangement. Now, the fabric passes through the bath and gets wind upon another roller. When the almost complete fabric is wound upon the second roller, the machine stops and the roller's moving direction gets reversed. This operation continues till the end of the process.
Liquor circulation pump:
The liquor circulation system consists of the centrifugal pump. This pump generates a pressure of two bars. Internal plastic net helps to separate the big particles from the liquor. The circulation pump is connected to the stainless steel piping of the water spraying system. A manual flow control valve and deflector system are used for even liquor distribution
Quick liquor discharge:
A large diameter pneumatically controlled drain valve is used for quick liquor discharge. it allows short change over time of water.
Fabric unloading system:
There is one stainless steel guiding frame supported by 2 air cylinders for single unloading, including a fixed stainless steel fabric spreading bar and a mechanical safety lock.
Stainless steel side tank:
The machine is also provided with a stainless steel side tank of 300 litres capacity with direct manual heating. The tank is equipped with a plastic net, manual drain valve, automatic mixer, level sensor, re-circulation connection and rinsing rim for automatic cleaning.
Water spraying system:
The objective of the water spraying unit is to spray the chemical or colour solution upon the fabric surface during the process. A circulation pump is used to feed the chemical or colour solution to the nozzles. The nozzles are fitted in the two hollow pipes. Each hollow pipe is mounted on each side of the machine. When the pump lifts the colour solution and feeds it to the hollow pipes, the chemical or colour solution comes out of nozzles at high pressure. The solution coming out of nozzles sprays on the fabric surface at both sides of the machine. The spraying solution drops in the trough. this cycle is repeated continuously.
Special features of modern jigger machine:
* A.C. drive.
* Tension regulation and control system.
* Fabric speed regulation system.
* Fabric measuring system.
* Smooth and jerk less during stop and start.
* Number of turns counter meter.
* Gradual and noiseless reversal.
* Automatic temperature regulation and control.
The typical recipe for various processes in
the jigger dyeing machine:
A typical recipe for various processes in the jigger dyeing machine is given below:
Combined scouring & bleaching:
Hydrogen Peroxide ( Bleaching agent) - 2-5%
Caustic soda ( Scouring agent) - 1-2%
Wetting agent (Improve wetting tendency of fabric) - 0.1-0.5%
Sodium silicate ( Peroxide stabilizer) - 1-3%
Sequestering agent ( To reduce the hardness of water) - 0.5%
Dyeing and washing:
Reactive dyes ( Colouring agent) - 2-4%
Wetting agent (Improve wetting tendency of fabric) - 0.5%
Sodium chloride (Exhausting agent) - 5%
Sodium carbonate (Fixing agent) - 1-2%
Soap (Removing unfixed dyes) - 0.5%
Advantages of jigger dyeing process:
* The jigger is a short liquor dyeing machine for textile fabrics in open-width form.
* The small lots can be easily processed economically in a jigger dyeing machine.
* The jigger dyeing machine is the most suitable for all kinds of shades.
* Excellent colour fastness properties of the dyed fabric are achieved in the jigger dyeing machine.
* The investment cost is lower than the continuous dyeing technique.
* The jigger dyeing machine is suitable for all kinds of processes in open width, from pretreatment to finishing.
Disadvantages of jigger dyeing process:
* When the lightweight fabrics ( open perforated fabric) are dyed on the jigger dyeing machine, the more chances of yarn slippage get possible.
* The lot size gets too much smaller than the continuous dyeing process.
* There is always a chance of some fabric damage at both ends of the batch.
* If the stitching thread is not selected properly, there, the impression marks of the stitching thread may appear at both ends of the batch.
* If the pieces are not stitched accurately according to the direction of residual bowing, the bowing in the fabric may be increased during processing.
* If a fabric has the skewing, the shade difference between selvedge and body fabric may appear.
* When the fabric is dyed on the jigger dyeing machine, the moderate tension on the fabric gets applied throughout the process. The fabric gets elongated and warpwise shrinkage gets increased.
Objectives of calendaring process, types of calendars, structure and working principle of calendaring machine
Objectives of singeing, types of singeing machines, structure and working principle of singeing machines
PRE - TREATMENT PROCESS OF NATURAL CELLULOSIC FABRICS OR FABRIC PREPARATION FOR DYEING
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COTTON FIBRE, CHEMICAL FORMULA OF COTTON FIBRE, CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE COTTON FIBRE
TYPES OF YARN, CLASSIFICATION OF YARN
GENERAL TERMS TO BE USED IN TEXTILE
HOW TO FIND YARN COUNT FOR GIVEN FABRIC GSM:
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF LOOM
CLOTHE OR FABRIC COVER FACTOR CALCULATION
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