Thursday, March 21, 2019

TEMPLE MARKS IN THE FABRIC, A FABRIC DEFECT, CAUSES, AND REMEDIES



 Temple marks in the woven fabric:

The temple mark is a very common fabric defect. The temple mark appears in the longitudinal direction of the fabric. As the defect name expresses, the defect appearing in the fabric due to a temple is called temple mark.




Before describing temple marks, it is necessary to know about the role of the temple in the loom. We know that the fabric width is always less than reed space used on the loom. When the fabric weaves on the loom, it tries to shrink in width of the fabric. As the width of the fabric shrinks, the angle of the ends with the reed dent is also changed. This change in angle results in the form of abrasion between ends and dents of the reed and causes very high warp breakage. This warp breakage situation does not allow the weaver to run a loom for weaving.

The temples at both sides of the fabric are used to prevent the shrinkage of the fabric width between beat-up position and maximum backward reed position. The temple always tries to stretch (pull) the fabric toward the selvedge and hence maintains the angle between ends and the dents of the reed. The ideal angle between dents and ends should be 90 degrees but in the weaving of maximum fabric qualities, it is always less than 90 degree. The difference between ideal and actual angle should be as minimum as possible.

The temple marks normally appear in fine fabrics, loose construction fabric and fabric woven with heavy picks per inch.
There are so many causes of temple marks appearing in the fabric.

1 – When a warp breakage occurs around the temple, the weaver repairs the end breakage and leaves the tail of the repaired end uncut. When woven fabric comes out after temple, this uncut tail of repaired end passes easily in maximum occasions but sometimes it wraps in the temple rings and stops the revolving movement of the ring. This problem causes the temple mark in the fabric. The prominence of defect depends upon the degree of interruption of the revolving movement of the temple ring. Weaver should always take care of this kind of problem.

2 – Sometimes, the fibres fluff become deposited inside the temple rings. This fluff prevents the free revolution of temple ring. Thus temple mark appears in the fabric. The temple rings should always be cleaned properly after a fixed time of interval regularly.

3 – when the temples are taken out from the loom during beam gaiting, these should be kept properly. If a technician keeps these temples on the cemented floor or iron sheet, the spikes of the temple rings become blunt. These blunt spikes of temple cause temple marks in the fabric. The technician should take care of the temple and should keep the temple on the soft object. Sometimes, the spikes of rings also become blunt after long time use. This kind of temple should be replaced after a definite time of interval.

4 – After long use of the temple, the Teflon bushes of the rings get loosed and an extra clearance is created. This extra clearance in the temple ring helps to change the ring’s revolving path. The ring inclines left and right continuously during the beating. This problem causes temple marks in the fabric.

5 - The temple setting is also responsible for temple marks. There should be a maximum grip of rings on the fabric. The spikes should not touch any part of the loom except fabric. If temple marks are appearing, the angle between ends and dents of the reed should be decreased slightly.

6 – In fine quality and loose construction quality, the one ring rubber temple should be used. if this type of temple is not available, a technician should keep only three to four rings in the existing temples. Extra rings should be taken out. This practice localises the temple marks at selvedge only.

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